Computers are one of the most common digital devices we use. Also, calculators, digital clocks, mobile phones, digital counters are all our most familiar digital devices. All of these devices work through digital signal processing.
Even 15 years ago, analog telephone sets were the fastest means of exchanging information, but now we are using digital mobile phones. All the modern electronics devices of today are being made based on digital electronics.
And this digital electronics depends on the binary number system. So if we want to know about digital devices, we have to start with the number system.
History of inventing numbers
The fact that the numbers actually started is a mystery in itself. It is said that numbers are born from the beginning of counting. Although it is thought that the need for numbers arose from the very beginning of civilization, the calculation dates back to much earlier than civilization. From the various studies of common sense and scientists, it is certain that the number starts with
The strongest evidence that someone used the first number is that it is safe to say that someone started counting with the first number 20,000 years ago. In 1960, a thousand-year-old bone of a baboon was found in the Congo, Africa, in order to see a number of deliberately carved snakes. By looking at them, the scientists confirmed that the numbers were calculated with the spots.
This bone is known as “Ishango Bone”. However, with the beginning of civilization, the process of calculation became necessary. The first numbers appear in ancient Sumerian civilization as early as 4000 BC. They used numbers to calculate. They started using a number system in the population census, cattle census, grain census, etc.
3000 BC The Egyptians started using the number system for measurement in addition to the first calculation. They introduced a unit called the “qubit”. 1 qubit is equal to the sum of the length of a man’s arm and the palm of his hand.
They built various structures, pyramids, masts, temples, etc., which made them geometrically perfect. Moreover, the Egyptians were the first to make separate symbols for each number. The maximum number in their number system was 1 million (1,000,000). Millions were expressed with a picture of a man kneeling.
Pythagoras established a separate school of mathematics in Greece only, relying on this numbering of the Egyptians. Pythagoras was the first to introduce the idea of even and odd numbers.
Pythagoras is said to be the world’s first theoretical mathematician. Along with Pythagoras, another Greek mathematician Archimedes took the number system to a unique height.
Geometry was greatly improved by Pythagoras and Archimedes. This improvement, however, ceased with the death of Archimedes. When the Romans came to occupy Syracuse in Greece in 212 BC, a Roman soldier killed Archimedes.
After the assassination of Archimedes and the Roman occupation of Greece, the development of mathematics became dependent on the Romans. The Romans had a separate number system, although it was not widely used. Because that method was very troublesome. Moreover, the Romans were not as interested in warfare as they were in the development of the number system.
That is why their complex number system is of no use except for counting. However, Indian mathematicians greatly improved the number system. Of course, it was many years after the Roman occupation of Greece.
The first zero was used in India in 500 AD. The Indians wanted to express huge numbers very easily. In the Roman or Greek system, it was a very complex task. As a result, they invented the number system themselves. The Indian mathematician and astronomer Brahmagupta introduced zero in the first number system.
As a result, in the Indian numeral system, a total of ten numbers from zero to nine are expressed with different symbols. The ten-based number system is created. In this method, zero has no value of its own, but its real significance can be understood only when it is combined with other numbers.
As a result, it is possible to determine the number up to an infinite number of values with the discovery of zero. Yes. As a result, India went many steps ahead in mathematics. The discovery of zero was a groundbreaking discovery in mathematics.
The next major event in the history of mathematics took place in 62 AD. During this time Muslim mathematicians in Persia introduced the concept of “fractions” in numerology. At that time the Muslims needed a fine number system to perform the various calculations described in the holy book Quran Sharif.
For example, the system of distribution of wealth of the deceased to his successors, which is mentioned in the Qur’an, required a very fine calculation. As a result, Muslim mathematicians invented the method of dividing numbers into smaller parts, which was established as the concept of “fractions”.
Muslim mathematicians made many more improvements in the number system. For example, they first introduced the concepts of algebra and equations, as well as the “algorithm” (the process of solving mathematical problems), which gave a new form to not only mathematics but also science. The Arabic numeral system was first introduced in Europe. The Roman numeral system was in vogue in Europe at that time. They got the Arabic numeral system and adopted it.
The ancient Arabic numerals look almost identical to the modern English numerals. After the Europeans started using Arabic numerals, the Arabs changed their symbols and introduced the Arabic symbols currently used in Arabia.
179 Godfred Leibniz, a German mathematician, developed a number system with 0. Method 1 means “something is happening” and “nothing”. This is the binary system, with all the digital electronic devices starting from the computer running. However, Leninitz also developed a number of computer systems called “Colossus” for Nazi information during World War II.
A numerical system has been used
The method by which the number expression is calculated is called the number. The method used for. The number symbol is the sum of some symbols or the number of languages. Number symbols indicate numbers, such as “1”, “eleven”, “XI”, “11”, “eleven” – although the number symbols are different, they all indicate only one.
Classification of Number System
Depending on how many number systems have been discovered in the world so far
Is divided into parts.
1. Non-Positional Number Systems
2. Positional Number Systems
The use of this number system can be seen in the ancient calculation process. It goes without saying that it is of no use at present. The numbers used in this number system have no local value, only their own value.
That is, there is no effect on the position of the numbers between the numbers. Examples of the ancient Roman numeral system or the hieroglyphic number system of the Egyptians. The use of this number system is now very common.
In this numbering, method find the value of a number.